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[文摘] 《功夫熊猫》的禅——自种子已发芽

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发表于 2009-11-9 15:54:52 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  《功夫熊猫》是这个学校假期的亮点之一,当然还有一家三口的最爱,必不可少的爆米花。且不论艺术性,动画形象和配音十分讨喜,内容积极健康,一家人从头暴笑到尾。看了中文版还不过瘾,还要再看英文版。强烈推荐给小小朋友们。
  看完种子问了两个问题:一,残豹为什么变成了大坏蛋。二,秘籍上为什么没有字。
  第一个问题,妈妈回答,因为残豹非常聪明,师傅也非常喜欢他,所以残豹有错误师傅也不骂他,残豹不知道自己做错了,开始是做小错事,后来就犯下了大错。种子思索半晌,点头认同,还辅以例证:残豹小时候拔师傅的胡子,师傅很痛都不骂他。他这样做是不对的,师傅应该要批评他。妈妈窃喜,趁热打铁赶紧顺竿爬:没错,妈妈批评你那叫“打是亲骂是爱”,知道你错了还不管你那是“溺爱”,不是真的爱你是害了你。种子点头。种子和妈妈都得出结论,学习很重要,学做好人更重要。不喜欢做功课的种子应该很喜欢这个结论吧,呵呵。
第二个问题,妈妈回答:那是因为秘密就是要相信自己做你自己呀。本来还想往佛教的我上引,种子的注意力已转移,便就此作罢。已丢在阿赖耶识里的善种子,总有一天会发芽的吧。
  每个孩子都有一个梦想,阿波的梦想是成为功夫大侠,种子6岁时的梦想是成为艺术家。为此每个星期妈妈送种子去上三次美术课。种子家族没有一个人有艺术细胞,种子也还没展示任何特殊的艺术天分,不曾在任何比赛中得到小奖。然而小种子并不知道她距离梦想还有多远,她只是单纯地喜欢着画画,一直画一直画,好动多话的种子一拿起画笔就变得无比专注和安静。小种子,有一天会不会“一个意外”变成未来的“神龙大侠”呢?妈妈不知道,也无所谓。梦想与信心,就是种子的保障。妈妈就是种子的龟大仙,绝对不会逼种子非得继承家族生意卖祖传秘方的面汤的。

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  偶然看到沈时安写的这篇the Zen of Kongfu Panda,很是欣赏。试着翻译出来,看看西方人眼里的禅,呵呵。

  熊猫阿波
是不折不扣的大冷门(underdog是一部电影的名字,中文翻译超级狗。一只笨笨的狗最后却拯救了世界。感谢糯米的建议,此处改为意译。)——这只圆滚滚胖乎乎总是觉得饿的熊猫,怎么看都不像预言中将把村庄从残豹的魔爪中拯救出来的神龙大侠。虽然阿波一直都梦想成为武功盖世的功夫大侠,当他意识到他的功夫技术还差得很远时他没有了自信。

  虽然如此,祖师龟大仙还是相信他的潜力——就像他确信一颗桃树种子一定会长成一棵桃树,也只会长成一棵桃树而不是其他的——但是只有当必要的条件都具备时。重点在于阿波是“被选中的那一个”,这让人想到,无论看起来如何不像,众生皆有佛性。

  然而,开始时龟大仙的首徒涣熊功夫大师却怀疑阿波的能力,不耐烦地想要在培育种子之前就采摘种子。有时,我们只能种下种子,培育它并等待它适时结果。就像龟大仙所说,“没有意外”——虽然因果与条件的相互作用需要时间。因果业力并不是都像我们希望的的那样速成!

  阿波请求师傅“把我变成不是我”,这让我想起佛教关于无我的教导——看似矛盾地,允许通过个人的努力“自我”转变以达到精神境界的成长。看到阿波对于食物的贪婪,师傅利用他的欲望达到想要的结果——利用他无止尽的胃口作为激励他训练的方式。这个概念类似于密宗有技巧地把原始欲望转变为通往自由解脱的动力。
  残豹与阿波为了神龙秘籍和神龙大侠的位置而争斗。其实,神龙秘籍只是一卷空白,只照射出每个看的人的脸。著名的让人成为神龙大侠的“秘籍”,只不过是一个精神的寄托,一个禅宗公案般的谜题。没有秘籍可以让人变成武功盖世的大侠——除了与真理同在的——诚恳的信心与正义。
  所以,残豹背叛师傅所教的一切,为的只是争到什么都不是的东西。他以为必定带给他荣耀的秘籍,却是空无一字。当他明白秘籍没什么特殊的东西,也正讽刺地证明了他不值得得到秘籍所代表的荣耀。有趣的是,空白的秘籍就像一本无字的经书,在精巧地讲述微妙真理的同时成为制止傲慢的好量规。
  空白的秘籍让我联想起寻求绝对真理的善财童子的故事。经过长时间的搜寻,他遇到了文殊师地菩萨,圆满智慧的化身——文殊菩萨指给他一个陡峭山顶的一座塔。经过危险的攀登,善财到达了这座塔——并发现里面是空的!这是不是暗示着,学习的过程比终点更重要,而无上的智慧没有定法?
  佛教对这部影片的影响的一些表现,包括仙鹤书写“禅”字时被阿波打扰的场景。龟大仙也若有所思地低语:“昨天是历史,明天是秘密,但是今天却是一个礼物。这就是为什么当下在英文中又叫做礼物(present一语双关)”。也许这是受到《一夜贤者经》(由一行禅师翻译)的启发,其精华正是佛陀的教导...

不要追究过去。不要迷失在未来。
过去不再有。未来还未到。
就在此地此刻,当下体察生命。
行者安住于安宁与自由。
我们今天必须努力。等待明天已太迟。
死亡无常不可测。我们怎能讨价还价?

Po the Panda (voiced by Jack Black) is the perfect underdog - the roly-poly yet constantly hungry one, who seemed to be the exact misfit as the Dragon Warrior, who is prophesised to save a village from the wrath of Tai Lung the leopard (voiced by Ian McShane). While Po fantasised at length about being an almighty martial artist, his self-confidence wanes when he realises how far away he is in skill.

Nevertheless, Oogway the grandmaster tortoise (voiced by Randall Duk Kim) believes in his potential - just as he was sure that a peach seed could be nurtured into a peach tree, that a peach seed will transform into nothing but a peach tree - but only when supporting conditions are present. The focus on Po being the "chosen one" might remind Buddhists of how even the least likely of us have Buddha-nature!

However, Shifu the racoon (voiced by Dustin Hoffman), who was the chief disciple of Oogway, doubted Po's abilities initially, and was impatient at wanting to pluck the fruit before the seed was nurtured. Sometimes, we can only plant karmic seeds, nurture them and wait for fruition in good time! As Oogway says, "there are no accidents" - though the interplay of causes, conditions and effects takes time. Karma is not always as instant as we wish!

Po's plea to his master to "make me not me" is reminiscent of the Buddhist teaching of non-self - which paradoxically allows for "self"-transformation via personal efforts to grow in spiritual insight. Seeing Po's greed for food, Shifu uses his desires with desirable effects - by using his unending appetite as a means to motivate him to train hard and well. It's vaguely like the tantric concept of skilfully transforming gross desire into fine fuel for liberation!

Vying for the status of the Dragon Warrior, Tai Lung fights with Po for the Dragon Scroll. In truth, it was but an empty scroll, which reflects the face of the one who peers into it. This famed secret "recipe" for making one the Dragon Warrior was but a spiritual placebo, a Zen koan-like riddle. There is no secret ingredient that makes one the mightiest warrior - other than honest confidence and righteousness - which would be aligned with the truth.

Thus, Tai Lung had betrayed all that he had learnt from Shifu with his contention for the scroll, which was much ado about nothing. The honour that he assumed it promised was literally "empty" of any substantiality. That he realised nothing special from the scroll ironically proved that he did not deserve the honour it represented. As if a wordless sutra, the empty scroll interestingly becomes a good gauge to deter pride while subtly offering truth.

The empty scroll might remind some of the story of Sudhana, who goes on a quest for the absolute truth. After a long search, he meets Manjusri Bodhisattva, the personification of perfect wisdom - who points him to a tower atop a steep mountain. After a perilous ascent, Sudhana arrives at the tower - and realises it is empty! Could this imply that the journey of learning matters more than its end, while ultimate wisdom has no fixed forms?

Some other traces of Buddhist influences in the film include a scene of Crane (voiced by David Cross) being interrupted by Po while finishing a calligraphic piece of the word Zen in Chinese (Chan)! Oogway also utters thoughtfully that "Yesterday is history, tomorrow is a mystery, but today is a gift. That is why it is called the present." Perhaps it was inspired by the heart of the Bhaddekaratta Sutta (translated by Thich Nhat Hanh below), where the Buddha taught...

Do not pursue the past. Do not lose yourself in the future.
The past no longer is. The future has not yet come.
Looking deeply at life as it is in the very here and now,
the practitioner dwells in stability and freedom.
We must be diligent today. To wait until tomorrow is too late.
Death comes unexpectedly. How can we bargain with it?


- Shen Shi'an
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